• C h 1.  The Amazing intersection of the heart, mind and body-----------------  Dance

    Do you have the Power?

    Dance is a creative act of expression, imitation, communication, and reflection. It is a language that has existed & operated, throughout the human experience. The Power of dance awaits you. Dance then, wherever you may be!

    What is dance?
    The 1st ballet dancers were men. Ballet developed in Europe during the 1500s.

    As you explore dance you won’t only be thinking in new ways you will also be moving in new ways.

    Some of these new movements may feel difficult & awkward, while others may feel easy & natural.

    Tension --- to stretch latin word   Tanz

    Although there is debate about the origin, of the English word “dance” many scholars believe that in the history of our language development, to stretch meant tense, and the word tense evolved into dance.

    Martha Graham  1894-1991 – In her technique, movement originated in the center of the body, with a contraction or release of the abdominal area.

    Doris Humphrey  1895-1958 & Charles Weidman 1901-1975

    Both the limon technique & the technique that Humphrey & Weidman explored have to do with the potential of falling and the solution to rebound.

    Yawns, slouches, sighs, crossed legs, toe tapping, and pacing are all examples of personal mannerisms we use to help balance the many forces we face every day. 

    ---------------- When you order natural, physical, human resoponses, or when you use them for expression, you are dancing. 

     

    To Dance is Phenomenal

    It is better, instead, to accept that because dance evolves to reflect the culture it serves, it is an ever-changing phenomenon.

    4> Components that Distinguish Dance From non-dance activities-------------

    1>  Dances have a purpose

    2>  Dances has intentional rhythm

    3>  Dances contain culturally patterned sequences.

    4>  Dances have extraordinary nonverbal movement, which has value in & of itself.

    Through your study of dance you will discover:

    Ø The dancer: you find out about your body’s limits and capabilities

    Ø The choreographer: you will explore not only physical but also social, emotional and spiritual aspects of yourself.

    Ø The Viewer: you will discover a curiosity for sights, sounds, patterns & textures.

       Ch 3 Learning to Dance Notes

    Dive-Right-In Aproach: You can go to a dance and just get in there and dance (dive-right-in) you normally use the approach when dances have limited movements. Things are simple limited vocabulary and minimal selection of basic steps.

    Creative Approach: The dancer continuously invents movements according to personal preferences. It is structured to encourage personal investigation into some particular aspect of movement. 

    Technical Approach: You copy a dance technique that has been identified and valued as worthwhile for training.

    Fundamental Movement Experiences

    1)      Analyzing the action of the spine

    Ø  It can bend, twist, or extend

    Ø  Ballet- it displays freedom from the force of gravity, so the spine is generally vertical

    Ø  Jazz- which often deals with the contrasts of power and submission

    Ø  Modern Dance- makes shapes that may or may not pertain to the force of gravity. Modern dances can be confusing….their intuition tells them one thing, and the dance says something else

    2)      Loco Motor versus Axial Movement

    Ø  Moving through space: volume of dance area in which the dancer works.

    Ø  2 options when moving: they can move through space by walking, running, leaping, skipping, or they can move in place.

    Ø  Actions that take the body through space are called Locomotor.

    Ø  Actions that do not take the body through are called Axial.

    3)      Rhythmic coorcination- intentional rhythm distinguishes dance from other movement activities

    4)      Functional Alignment

    Ø  The move you come to understand your personal strengths and weaknesses, the more you will discover how important it is to work in the most balanced relaxed manner.

    Ø  When you begin to form your dance movements, you need to be conscience of working so you joints are protected and your strength and flexibility are most easily accessed.

    5)      Moving from your center

    Ø  When you dance your center is your physical, emotional, and spiritual source of strength and balance.

    PURPOSE OF DANCE

    This will vary for different people. 
    Dance-Socially: Like being with other people, enjoy moving with other people and like the way they feel after dancing.

    Dance-Formally: You have formal dance classes and appreciate the rewards of rigorous training as you discover more physical potential.

    Those who create: Choreograph (choreographers)

    ALL:  

    Ø  Want to present their effects to others

    Ø  Want to share the thrill and joy of moving

    SOME:

    Ø  Hope that the movement patterns they have created will be so impressive to a viewer

    SOME:

    Ø  Don’t use highly trained movement hoping instead to establish fellowship with their audience by using a vocabulary that is within the average person’s capability    

    TRAINING, EXPLORING AND FORMING

    Ø  As you integrate these processes, you will be developing a STYLE

    STYLE and Body Intelligence

    STYLE and patterns of coordination

    STYLE in identifying dance in history

    What it might mean to have your own STYLE.

    TRAINING: Physical training will help you develop your instrument – your body – So that you have the possibility to physically realize great diversity of movement, the training doesn’t have to be rigorous to enjoy dance or to choreograph a dance, but both an awareness and acceptance of your physical limits and strengths are needed. Training involves obsercation ofo not only your teacher but also your classmates.

    EXPLORING: You are in charge of cultivating your creative curiosity. You are responsible for finding magic in why you are or what you do – dance class is a great place to develop those skills – skills that will also impact other aspects of your life.

    FORMING: Training, Exploring and Forming are interconnected aspects of the creative process. While you train, you explore new ways to form your body into desirable shapes and to accomplish new goals. When you explore, you train yourself to operate with curiosity and suspend judgment, and you form unique patterns motivated by your personal interests and skills.

    FORMING is the springboard for the “Art of Dance”.
     

    Ch2 Social Dance History

    Dance is a way of knowing and communicating.

    All Societies use dance to communicate on both personal and cultural levels and to meet physical and spiritual needs.

         People dance for health pleasure, communion, expression and profit. Dance can be both medium and message.

    Human beings communicate on many different levels simultaneously, and dance can heighten consciousness to a level beyond words.

    What occurs when you dance?

    Depends on what kind of dancing you are doing.

    This acknowledges that dance has different kinds of POWER.

    The power depends on what you want dance to do for you.

    What do you want dance to do for you?

    Five Different Kinds of Dance:

    Social Dance, Ballet, Modern dance, Jazz, Musical Theater –

    Genres’ (Kind, Sort, Style)

    Social Dance

    Recreational, Traditional, and functional> Spring from pleasure

    >All contribute to a sense of belonging to a society.

    >Dances reflect values and beliefs of those doing the dance

    >Allow people to explore and express their relationship to a group

    Western Civilization Social Dances

    They grew from village dances practiced by Europeons during the 15th and 16th centuries

    >circle dances and line dances enjoyed by the masses

    >court dances more formal

    >political power rested on one’s ability to DANCE CORRECTLY.  J

    Renaissance Period…….

    Popular dances: rounds, ring dances, galliards, allemandes, paranes branles

    The complicated steps of the Minuet tested the talents of the Nobles of the courts of Lousi XIV in the 17th Century

    Seven periods of the social dance in the U.S., ALL tied to the phases of popular music.

    1> 1900s -1920s  Music: Ragtime – Dances: bunny hug, grizzly bear

    2> 20s-30s Music: Dixieland Period – Dances: Charleston, Black Bottom

    3> 30s-50s Music: Big Band Music – Dances: Swing ERA Lindy hop, Jitterbug, The Big Apple, Shag, Lambeth Walk, All popular among the college crowd.

    4> Tango Fad 1920s Latin dances: rumba, samba cha cha cha, Merengue, bossa nova

    5> 50s-70s ROCK AND ROLL music --- Dances: Twist, hitch hiker, swim, monkey, pony, Jerk NO LONGER WAS IT NECESSARY TO HAVE A PARTNER

    6> Country Western Post WWII time

    7> Late 20th Century disco, break dancing and hip hop

     

    Social Dance positions

    -face each other

    -stand side by side

    -don’t touch at all

     

    1.    Closed position:

    Leader: R hd around follower

    Follower: hd on shoulder blade

     

    Latin Social dancing: Hands clasped at shoulder level

    2.    Side by Side

    Follower on leaders Right

    >Escort >Conversation >Cuddle >Country-Western

    Ballet: Definitions and History

    Art of Ballet began in the social dances of medieval Europe.

    Dances gradually became more complicated. Their purpose evolved from mere pleasure to include the political and social gain of nobles & royalty.

    >Terminology of Ballet is in French.  Ballet first systematized in the Academic Royal de la Danse, founded by Louis XIV in 1661. In his day dance had the power to make or break careers! Through dance you demonstrated your right to be a member of the elite.

    The innovation of the point shoes in 1820s brought the next big shift in ballet technique. Women eclipsed men in the importance on the stage.

    Skirts shorter, thin fabric, by 20th century the line of shape of the body in space, became as important an element as promoting the story had been in the romantic period of the 1800s or even the era of classical ballet in the 1900s.

    The dancer’s goal is to develop sufficient core strength.

    Ballet Class

    Begins at the barre, moves to the center floor for adagio-slow movements or steps, then turns and jumps leading to petit allegro-small faster movements or steps then to grand allegro- larger movements or steps. Class then ends with reverence (curtsy and bow)

    Phases of Ballet

    Court Ballets

    1300-1400s: Social Phase

    Bares little resemblance to  ballet of today.

    The banquets, spectacles, & magnifiques that occurred in those days were lavish affairs with themed decorations, costuming, poetry, song, pantomime and dance. Little thought was given to the form of the whole event. 

    1500: Early Technique

    Dance masters Cesare Negri, Fabrito Caroso, and Thoinot Arbeau published manuals and treaties on correct dance technique.

    1581- 1st Ballet

    Ballet comique de la reine Louise

    Choreographed by: Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx

    The audience was all nobility, numbered between 9,000 and 10,000.

    1600-1700: High Court Dances

    Most famous dancer to influence the development of concert dance:

    Louis XIV King of France 1643-1715 He was an excellent dancer

    He named Pierre Beauchamp 1st ballet master of L’Academic de la Danse.

    We have him to Thank for the 5 positions used in Ballet today.

    Birth of Classical Ballet

    A classical Ballet is a dramatic production that tells a story using the movement vocabulary of ballet.

    Ballet classics: Swan Lake, Giselle, Sleeping Beauty, and La Bayadere – All came out of the Imperial School of Ballet in Russia during the 1800

    The ballon (lift & lightness) of the ballerina was an inevitable quality enhanced by the innovation of the pointe shoe.

    With the invention of the pointe shoe interest in the ballerina rose & stage dance became increasing associated with women.

     

     

    Ballet Positions

    Positions of the feet:

    There are 5 fundamental positions of the feet. They represent perfect turn out. It is important to remember that the feet achieve these positions due to outward rotation of the whole leg in from the hip socket.

    >First position: The heels touch & the toes point away from center to the left & right of the body.

    >Second position: The balls of the feet & heels form a single line & the heels are about 1 foot apart.

    >Third position: One foot in front of the other with heel touching the middle of the arch of the other foot.

    >Fourth position: from third slide the front foot forward about 12in., still turned out so that it is directly in front and parallel to the back foot.

    >Fifth position: 2 variations –

    Russian**** heel of the front foot crosses to the tip of the back foot’s toe

    Cecchetti****heel of the front foot is directly in front of the big toe of the back foot.

    Positions of the Arms

    >Preparatory position: Arms are rounded low in front of the body, fingertips in front of but not touching the thighs.

    >First position: Arms are round in front of the mid-torso

    >Second position: Arms out to the side slightly rounded

    >Demi-Second position: Arms out to side of the body at the hips

    >Third Position: One arm rounds high over the head while the other stretches to second.

    >Fourth position: 2 versions

    (On high) one arm rounds high over the head while the other curves in front at the waistline

    (In front) one arm curves in front at the waistline, the other arm stretches in 2nd position.

    >Fifth position: Both arms are high and rounded framing the head extended diagonally upward from the hairline.

    The Language of Ballet

    Ballet classes throughout the world are taught in the same vocabulary. “Glissade, Pas de borree’, Jete’, Assemble’, “whether they are in Paris, Tokyo, Istambul or New  York City, the dancers will do the same movements.

    Ballet of the 20th Century

    These ballets had unity of costume, subject and scenery, an integrate corps of ballet and choreography that expressed the state of mind of the characters.

    Serge Diaghilev (1872-1929) - A producer who brought together some of the greatest in ballet at this time.  He called his company Ballet Russes.

    The choreographer Michel Fokine (1880-1942) Known for creating period ballets

    Fokine believed that the whole body should be expressive, that the power of the dance came from its ability to reveal the inner life of the individual.

    A list of collaborators of Diaghliev’s Ballet Russes (1909-1929) includes:

    Ballerinas: Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, Bronislava Nijinska, and Lydia Sokolova

    Male ballet dancers:  Vaslav Nijiksky, Leonid Massine, Frederick Ashton, Antony Tudor and George Balanchine

    Vaslav Nijinsky was known for shocking and unconditional movement. Was it Ballet? Many say no.

    Leonid Massine continued choreography on the Ballet Russes after Diaghilev died in 1929.

    George Balanchine: (1904-1983) began with Diaghilev. He came to the U.S. in 1934 to establish the School of American Ballet and the American Ballet Company. His style of choreography had a cool, logical, and mathematical approach to space and proportion. He created a new aesthetic called: Neo classical.

     
     

    Chapter 8 Dance Notes

    EFFORT

    The conjunction of physical shape in TIME and SPACE is defined as EFFORT.

    Half strangers in close proximity, Line dancers moving precisely as they stand shoulder to shoulder, Tango dancers woven together in to a single 4-legged unit are telling each other the truth, “FOR THE MOMENT WE BELONG” That truth is communicated through the shapes the participants make in TIME and SPACE.  (“Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth”)-- Pablo Picasso

    Traditional dances – Hold the communities belief in the magic of the movement.

    Concert dances – Go a level deeper because the dancer’s body is not complying with a set code, but is using the body to make a new statement.

    -When demonstrating the forces acting on your body- The dancer or choreographer’s effort is a combo of your physical, mental and emotional powers, and the effort you display as you dance, all this helps the audience understand the material you present.

    Inner Impulse: NEED

    Effort is the combo of muscular, mental and emotional power in action – Essence of the dancer’s subject.

    Ø Action motivated by inner impulse is effort

    Ø Effort is the trigger that sparks human movement

    Ø Humans can use effort  to create illusions

    FORCES THAT EFFECT MOVEMENT

    We work with in dance: GRAVITY, MOMENTUM, RESISTANCE, INERTIA AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCES.

    The dancers that use these forces skillfully will be able to make their dances more effective.

    GRAVITY

    In order to resist one force there must be force in the opposite direction.

    Those people who do amazing and enviable physical acts – Like balancing on their toes, leaping to make the net shot, and all sorts of other human tricks have figured this out.

    Dancers live with gravity in a different way than most people do in their everyday lives. EX. Express a feeling of complete hopelessness of power and of weightlessness.

    MOMENTUM

    A property of a moving body that determines the length of time required to bring it to rest when that body is experiencing a constant force that is momentum.

    The constant force is the power provided by the dancer

    Ø The power renewing a locomotor movement

    Ø The power sustaining any axial movement

    Ø The power to start and stop moving

    Variations of inner impulse that reveals the nature of the forces being marshaled to overcome the ordinary physics that would lead to a predictable display of energy. Without a display of unusual special or concerted effort the body in question would not do anything extraordinary.

    Resistance

    Weight equals resistance, the heavier the object, the greater its resistance to levity.

    For Dancers: the more weight you use in your movement, the more resistance you will create and the more you will be able to take advantage of gravity and other force related to your movement.

    ***Weight equals resistance and resistance equals potential***

    INERTIA

    A body at rest remains at rest until disturbed by an outside force. 

    ****INNER IMPULSE BRINGS US TO ACTION****

    Overcoming inertia in our daily lives is by choice or by reflex. Movement choices fall in to categories:

    Ø Moving because

    Ø Moving “as if”

    Only humans choose to move to overcome inertia in order to convey a particular effect.

    CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

    This propels a mass away from a rotating center. Centrifugal force is of great use for dancers since it enables motion to occur in the limbs and periphery without using customary effort. You can use centrifugal force to escape the pull of gravity.

    **Effort that reflects these forces**:

    Part of a dancers magic is the opportunity to create an illusion of force effort or energy.

    The choice of which kind of force to show and how to make it evident is the power of the dancer and choreographer

    The 4 fields you can manipulate to create the illusion of force of lack of force:

    TIME----SPACE----WEIGHT-----FLOW

    Effort is the combination of these 4 fields.

    Ø A long time in the air creates the illusion of a gravity free creature.

    Ø A short time in the air suggests more resistance, possibly more weight, less of centrifugal force.

    Ø Long LOW leaps indicate: a lack of resistance in a different plane, the dancer has the assistance of momentum and is able to apply weight to propel forward.

    Ø Beat, tempo and rhythm are manipulations of speed and duration. In terms of effort time is on a continuum with “fast” at one end and “slow” at the other end.

    Ø Combining level, shape and dimension in terms of effort, space is on a continuum with “small” at one end and “large” at the other.

    Ø Combining direction, perspective and focus in terms of effort, flow is on the continuum with “direct” at one end and “indirect” at the other.

    Ø Weight equals resistance. Think of resistance form strong to light. The degree of resistance. The effort with which a movement is realized is the result of that degree of resistance.

    TIME

    Can be measured and described in different ways

    Movement:

    Ø Could be fast, slow or something between those

    Ø 2 speeds

    The book by Rudolf Leban called The Mastery of Movement states the direction and the use of space can be described as direct and pliant (flexible) movements.

    EX. Words such as: poke, jab, punch, thrust, and pat describe DIRECT actions.

           Word such as: float, wring, glide and flick describe what Leban would label FLEXIBLE movements.  These are Words that occur in a curved, rather than a straight line.

    The amount of weight or force used in any action is very important, be it physical, mental or emotional effort.

    Another is the concept of range ---- how much extension is involved with movements. How far and to what end?

    EX. Think about the difference (in golf) between driving range versus a putting green the flow of the golfer’s stroke is entirely different depending on the course.  Likewise, the flow of movement will be affected by the need or opportunity to move through a full range of motion.

    Integrating Inner & Outer Forces

    Remember that there is effort in every human movement & that the display of effort makes evident the inner impulse in response to outer forces.

    Ø Mentally you make decisions about moving, directional changes, & speed changes

    Ø Emotionally you become invested in any number of ways

    Feel:

    Ø Silly – so you’re a little tense

    Ø Bored – so you’re  a little lax

    Ø Curious – so you experiment with a variety of different movements, weights and risks.

    Regardless of your approach, you will have SOME emotional response moving with focus

    YOUR BEST EFFORT

    Dance is most successful when the dancer is totally present in body, mind and spirit. When the effort shown is consistent with the physical, mental and emotional intention, the dance makes sense.

    MENTAL EFFORT

    Mental power is an important aspect of effort which must be balanced by the other powers.

    EMOTIONAL EFFORT

    Like mental power, emotional power can affect the effort a dancer feels & displays. Nervousness, self-confidence, fear, & joy are all emotional influences on effort. We have the ability to use our imagination to create emotional states that suit our needs. We can use that emotional power to create the transformations we call DANCE. J

    v For dance to appeal to the audience it (the dance) must have dramatic appeal.

    EFFORT IS TELLING AND COMPELLING

    v Of all things that make dancing so exciting and interesting to watch and do ******the way the dancer uses effort is ultimately the most compelling. ****** 

    Body Intelligence
    ch9

    *The process of dance training can be tricky balancing act between trying to change the way you are & trying to enjoy the way you are.

    *DO NOT set your mind against your body. “Why can’t I remember those steps” or “I wish I could think up moves of my own.” A more productive approach involves discovering how your body works with your brain as a thinking partner.

    *The physical reactions, reflexes, & habits that are stored in your muscles as well as your mind make up your body intelligence.

    *Body intelligence is the ability to coordinate these 4 components: Pattern – Skill – Sensation – Emotion

    *Your body type is an important, inherited factor that will influence the development of your body intelligence. 

    *Bodies can be divided into 3 builds:

    Endomorphic- short stocky

    Mesomorph- evenly proportioned, muscular

    Ectomorph- skinny, slender more frail

    In The Code of Terpsichore published in 1830

    ---Dansearnoble: elegant stately, noble carriage

    ---Dansearcomique: short stocky sturdiest

    ---Demi-caractare: middle height Satiric Roles

    -         “The mother of modern dance” Isadora Duncan was an innovator, product of her time. (Russian revolution, WWI, & a family that was suspicious of traditional social structure) She along with Loie Fuller, Ruth St.Denis & Mary Wigman made great contributions that influenced this form that was to become Modern Dance.  They wanted to get away from the traditional concert dance.

    -         Adaptive Development

    Refined motor responses develop in 2 ways:

                    Through imitation

                    Through adaptation

    -We learn to refine instinctive motor responses largely through adaptation

    -Some adaptations take place as the result of an injury or an illness.

    *Other necessities that cause an adaptive change in your body intelligence:

                        >circumstances

                        >customs

    These will help you master new sensory and emotional responses.

    *Behaviors unacceptable in one circumstance may be expected in another…. You adapt.

    *Your development of refined motor responses is also a product of conscious &/or unconscious decisions.

    *People can inspire us….

    Teachers, coaches, family, friends, even advice from strangers through media

    *It’s critical that you learn a process of imitation in order to develop:  -pattern-skill-sensation-&-emotion

    This in turn enables you to include your mental, physical &emotional self as well as ALL 4 components of body intelligence

    *STYLE is an instrument used to make an impression.

    *In Dance Style is a produce of your efforts & your essence. The STYLE you have as a dancer will come from the physical training you have had & the person you are.

    *As you improve the sensation of proper dance alignment (dance posture) becomes second nature & the demands of your chosen dance genre’ become familiar, you will find your own STYLE.

    *Regardless of the Dance Genre’ you chose:

    >You must discover the essence of the dance genre’

    >you must discover YOUR essence w/in the dance genre’.

    *Your duty as a dancer is to reveal, through the magic of movement, a spark of the soul. YOUR SOUL.

    *Your awareness & application of the principles of body intelligence & your dedication to discovering your own unique potential as a dancer will lead you to that magic. 
    J
     

    Ch2 Social Dance History

    Dance is a way of knowing and communicating.

    All Societies use dance to communicate on both personal and cultural levels and to meet physical and spiritual needs.

         People dance for health pleasure, communion, expression and profit. Dance can be both medium and message.

    Human beings communicate on many different levels simultaneously, and dance can heighten consciousness to a level beyond words.

    What occurs when you dance?

    Depends on what kind of dancing you are doing.

    This acknowledges that dance has different kinds of POWER.

    The power depends on what you want dance to do for you.

    What do you want dance to do for you?

    Five Different Kinds of Dance:

    Social Dance, Ballet, Modern dance, Jazz, Musical Theater –

    Genres’ (Kind, Sort, Style)

    Social Dance

    Recreational, Traditional, and functional> Spring from pleasure

    >All contribute to a sense of belonging to a society.

    >Dances reflect values and beliefs of those doing the dance

    >Allow people to explore and express their relationship to a group

    Western Civilization Social Dances

    They grew from village dances practiced by Europeons during the 15th and 16th centuries

    >circle dances and line dances enjoyed by the masses

    >court dances more formal

    >political power rested on one’s ability to DANCE CORRECTLY.  J

    Renaissance Period…….

    Popular dances: rounds, ring dances, galliards, allemandes, paranes branles

    The complicated steps of the Minuet tested the talents of the Nobles of the courts of Lousi XIV in the 17th Century

    Seven periods of the social dance in the U.S., ALL tied to the phases of popular music.

    1>  1900s -1920s  Music: Ragtime – Dances: bunny hug, grizzly bear

    2>  20s-30s Music: Dixieland Period – Dances: Charleston, Black Bottom

    3>  30s-50s Music: Big Band Music – Dances: Swing ERA Lindy hop, Jitterbug, The Big Apple, Shag, Lambeth Walk, All popular among the college crowd.

    4>  Tango Fad 1920s Latin dances: rumba, samba cha cha cha, Merengue, bossa nova

    5>  50s-70s ROCK AND ROLL music --- Dances: Twist, hitch hiker, swim, monkey, pony, Jerk NO LONGER WAS IT NECESSARY TO HAVE A PARTNER

    6>  Country Western Post WWII time

    7>  Late 20th Century disco, break dancing and hip hop

     

    Social Dance positions

    -face each other

    -stand side by side

    -don’t touch at all

     

    1.    Closed position:

    Leader: R hd around follower

    Follower: hd on shoulder blade

     

    Latin Social dancing: Hands clasped at shoulder level

    2.    Side by Side

    Follower on leaders Right

    >Escort >Conversation >Cuddle >Country-Western
     
     

    Tap Vocabulary

    Shuffle- brush front and back (2 sounds)

    Flap- brush stop (2 sounds) Weight change

    Flap heel- Brush step heel

    Maxie Ford – Shuffle jump toe

    Hop – stays on same foot

    Jump- switch feet

    Buffalo- jump shuffle jump

    Shim sham- shuffle step 2x (r & l) shuffle ballchange shuffle step

    Single Buck Time step- shuffle hop step flap step