• What are the Signs of Dyslexia?

    If the following behaviors are unexpected for an individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities, they may be risk factors associated with dyslexia.  A student with dyslexia usually exhibits several of these behaviors that persist over time and interfere with his/her learning. 

     

    Preschool
    • Delay in learning to talk
    • Difficulty with rhyming
    • Difficulty pronouncing words (i.e. “pusgetti” for “spaghetti”)
    • Poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants
    • Difficulty in adding new vocabulary words
    • Inability to recall the right word
    • Trouble learning and naming letters and numbers and remembering the letters in his/her name
    • Aversion to print (doesn’t enjoy following along if book is read aloud)

     

    Kindergarten and First Grade

    • Difficulty breaking words into smaller parts (syllables) (i.e. “baseball” can be pulled apart into “base” “ball”)
    • Difficulty identifying and manipulating sounds in syllables (i.e. “man” sounded out as /m/ /ă/ /n/)
    • Difficulty remembering the names of letters and recalling their corresponding sounds
    • Difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)
    • Difficulty spelling words the way they sound (phonetically) or remembering letter sequences in very common words seen often in print (i.e. “sed” for “said”)

     

     

    Second Grade and Third Grade

    Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic, along with the following:

    • Difficulty recognizing common sight words (i.e. “to,” “said,” “been”)
    • Difficulty decoding single words
    • Difficulty recalling the correct sounds for letters and letter patterns in reading
    • Difficulty connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or letter combinations and omitting letters in words for spelling (i.e. “after” spelled “eftr”)
    • Difficulty reading fluently (slow, inaccurate, and/or without expression)
    • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
    • Reliance on picture clues, story theme, or guessing at words
    • Difficulty with written expression

     

    Fourth Grade through Sixth Grade

    Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic, along with the following:

    • Difficulty reading aloud (fear of reading aloud in front of classmates)
    • Avoidance of reading (particularly for pleasure)
    • Acquisition of less vocabulary due to reduced independent reading
    • Use of less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell than more appropriate words (i.e. “big” instead of “enormous”)
    • Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension

     

    Middle School and High School

    Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic, along with the following:

    • Difficulty with the volume of reading and written work
    • Frustration with the amount of time required and energy expended for reading
    • Difficulty with written assignments
    • Tendency to avoid reading (particularly for pleasure)
    • Difficulty learning a foreign language

     

    -International Dyslexia Association