• Week 6-1
    binary acid - an acid that does not contain oxygen, such as hydrofluoric acid
    oxyacid - an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal 
    Arrhenius acid - a substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions in aqueous solution 
    Arrhenius base - a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution 
    strong acid - an acid that ionizes completely in a solvent
    weak acid - an acid that releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution 
    Brønsted-Lowry acid - a substance that donates a proton to another substance 
    Brønsted-Lowry base - a substance that accepts a proton 
    Lewis acid - an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts a pair of electrons 
    Lewis base - an atom, ion, or molecule that donates a pair of electrons 
    Week  6-2
    conjugate acid - an acid that forms when a base gains a proton
    conjugate base - a base that forms when an acid loses a proton
    amphoteric - describes a substance, such as water, that has the properties of an acid and the properties of a base
    neutralization - the reaction of the ions that characterize acids (hydronium ions) and the ions that characterize bases (hydroxide ions) to form water molecules and a salt
    salt - an ionic compound that forms when a metal atom or a positive radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid
    pH - a value that is used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater than 7 is basic 
    acid-base indicator - a substance that changes in color depending on the pH of the solution that the substance is in
    titration - a method to determine the concentration of a substance in solution by adding a solution of known volume and concentration until the reaction is completed, which is usually indicated by a change in color 
    end point - the point in a titration at which a marked color change takes place
    standard solution - a solution of known concentration, expressed in terms of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution 
    Week  6-3
    Thermochemistry - the study of the transfer of energy as heat that accompanies chemical reactions or physical change
    Calorimeter - measures the energy absorbed or released as heat in a chemical or physical change
    Temperature - measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
    Joule - the SI unit of heat as well as other forms of energy
    Heat - the energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperatures
    Specific heat - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a sample by 1º C
    Enthalpy of reaction - energy absorbed as heat during a chemical reaction at constant pressure
    Enthalpy change - the amount of energy absorbed by a system as heat during a process at constant pressure
    Thermochemical equation - chemical equation that includes the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during the reaction
    Enthalpy of combustion - the enthalpy change that occurs during the complete combustion of one mole of a substance